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17-01-2016, 18:20

Экзаменационные тексты по английскому

Экзаменационные тексты по английскому

Экзаменационные тексты по английскому

Экзаменационные тексты по английскому

Великобритания (Great Britain)
Моя специальность (My Speciality Is a Computer Engineer)
Город Владимир (The City of Vladimir)
Российская Федерация (The Russian Federation)
Владимирский государственный университет (Vladimir State University)


Great Britain

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is situated on the British Isles. The British Isles consist of two large islands, Great Britain and Ireland, and about five thousand small islands. Their total area is over 244,000 square kilometres.

The United Kingdom is made up of four countries: England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Cardiff, Edinburgh and Belfast respectively. Great Britain consists of England, Scotland and Wales and does not include Northern Ireland. But in everyday speech “Great Britain” is used to mean the United Kingdom. The capital of the UK is London.

The British Isles are separated from the European continent by the North Sea and the English Channel. The western coast of Great Britain is washed by the Atlantic Ocean and the Irish Sea.

The surface of the British Isles varies very much. The north of Scotland is mountainous and is called the Highlands, while the south, which has beautiful valleys and plains, is called the Lowlands. The north and west of England are mountainous, but all the rest – cast, center and south-east – is a vast plain. Mountains are not very high. Ben Nevis in Scotland is the highest mountain (1,343 metres).

There are a lot of rivers in Great Britain, but they are not very long. The Severn is the longest river, while the Thames is the deepest and the most important one.

The mountains, the Atlantic Ocean and the warm waters of Gulf Stream influence the climate of the British Isles. It is mild the whole year around.

The UK is one of the world's smaller countries. Its population is over 57 million. About 80% of the population is urban.

The UK is a highly developed industrial country. It is known as one of the world's largest producers and exporters of machinery, electronics, textile, aircraft and navigation equipment. One of the chief industries of the country is shipbuilding.

The UK is a constitutional monarchy. In law, the Head of State is Queen. In practice, the Queen reign but does not rule. The country is ruled by the elected government with the Prime Minister in the head. The British Parliament consists of two chambers: the House of Lords and the House of Commons.

There are three main political parties in Great Britain: the Labour, the Conservative and the Liberal parties. The Labour party is the ruling party nowadays. The Prime Minister is Tony Blair.

My Speciality Is a Computer Engineer

The need for competent computer engineers is increasing. There is a tremendous growth in the complexity of hardware and software. It seems that everywhere you turn these days there are computers in homes, offices and cars. We have entered the age of “thinking machines”, the age of computers. They have made a real revolution in culture, education, science, industry and many other fields of human life.

As I plan to be a computer professional, I entered the faculty of Informatics and Applied Mathematics of the Vladimir State University. This faculty trains future programmers and specialists in computer science. The students of the Computer Science Department obtain a broad general education and major in computer science. The curriculum includes specialized courses on hardware and software organization of a typical computer and computer systems, technology of programming, various system and application means, computer networks, construction and effective usage of information systems and technologies.

Specialization begins in the third year of study. The department of Computer Science offers students four areas of study: personal computers and networks (organization and exploitation), artificial intelligence, open information and computer systems, computer-aided design. Students can acquire an extensive knowledge of computer systems at the lectures delivered by experienced readers, in the library and at a computer center. The computer center supports a few tens of computers, which are available for programming and network research. Students have access to a variety of software in the computer center. They are taught how to use software on personal computers, how to create programs and to debug them. They make calculations and solve different problems with the help of computers. Some students take part in research. Research activities are conducted in the following areas: artificial intelligence, computer architecture, database systems, programming languages.

The knowledge gained at the University will help students in their future work. After graduating, they may get a job as a system analyst, a programmer or a service technician.

The City of Vladimir

Every city is proud of its particular glory. The city of Vladimir is noted for its famous architectural monuments in white stone created in the 12th century.

Right on the main thoroughfare there stand the Golden Gates, formerly the main entrance to Vladimir-Suzdal Principality's capital. It is partly a fortress and partly a triumphal arch. The five domed Cathedral of the Assumption with frescoes by Andrey Rublev is the historical center of Vladimir. These monuments are a symbol of importance of Vladimir in the history of Russia.

The city was founded by Vladimir the “Red Sunny” in 990. Later, under the rule of Andrey Bogolyubsky it turned into a major political center that headed the movement for unification of the Russian territories. It was in those years that the artful country residence of the Prince in Bogolyubovo was built with the Church of the Intercession on the Nerl which is a world famous monument.

The Cathedral of St. Dmitry, the palace of Prince Vsevolod III, was created in the period of the highest power of Vladimir and Suzdal Principality and is specifically noted for its carved decor.

After the defeat of the Russian troops by Batu's hordes the city of Vladimir could not preserve its political leadership and the mission of the main city of Russia passed over to Moscow.

Other ages left their signs in the history of the city. The 18th century is notable, too: in 1796 it became the center of a gubernia. The city received a coat-of-arms: a lion on the red background of a heraldic shield. In 1781 Vladimir began to be rebuilt according to a classical master plan approved by Catherine the Great.

Much has been achieved in the provision of cultural facilities. The city has three movie theaters, more than ten cultural centers, a concert hall, a few picture galleries, three music schools, a music college, two stadiums, the Joint Vladimir-Suzdal Museum-Preserve of History, Architecture and Art. There is also a drama theater, one of the oldest theaters in Russia, a puppet theater and some theater studios. Today the city has two universities – the Vladimir State University and the Vladimir State Pedagogical University. The student population is more than 17 thousand; together with the Russian students young people from Europe, Asia, Africa and America get higher education here.

The Russian Federation

The Russian Federation is the largest country in the Commonwealth of Independent States. Its territory is 17 million square kilometres. The country is divided into the western and eastern parts by the Urals, so Russia is both a European and Asian country. Its territory occupies various climatic zones. Flowing across the Russian Federation are the biggest rivers – the Amur, the Enisei, the Lena, the Ob, the Volga, which offer excellent possibilities for navigation and hydraulic constructions.

Russia is rich in natural resources, it is one of the world's wealthiest countries that can fully supply itself with all the necessary mineral reserves, such as iron ore, gold, silver, diamonds, non-ferrous metals. Particularly, great are fuel and power resources of natural gas, oil and coal, which are traditionally articles of Russian export.

Russia has always been a multinational country and united people of different cultures and confessions. Today 40 nations constitute the population of the Russian Federation, which is about 150 million people. Unfortunately, since 1990s mortality has been exceeding the birth rate, the average age of the people is gradually increasing.

Russia has been and remains a developed industrial and agricultural country with a huge potential of natural and human resources. A complicated and painful period of transition to a market economy and the break-up of the USSR have given rise to a number of economic and social problems mostly unknown to Russia before: high inflation rate, unemployment, bankruptcy of many enterprises, national conflicts, organized crime.

Politically, the Russian Federation is a republic. A new constitution was adopted by referendum on the 12th of December, 1993. It established a presidency and a bicameral legislature, consisting of a lower house called the State Duma and an upper house called the Federal Assembly. The supreme executive power belongs to the Prime Minister who is the Head of Government. The Head of State is the President.

Russia is rightly considered to be one of the great powers of the world not only because of its vast territory and the amount of natural resources – first of all, because of its intellectual potential and cultural traditions. Russia's contribution to every sphere of human thought is recognized worldwide.

Vladimir State University

In 1993 the Vladimir Politechnical Institute (established in 1964) was given the status of a university. At present more than 12,000 students from the Russian Federation and over 300 foreign citizens study at the Vladimir State University that trains specialists in most important branches of economics, industry and science. The University consists of ten faculties. They are: Faculty of Applied Mathematics and Physics, Architectural and Construction Faculty, Faculty of Automobile Transport, Faculty of Chemistry and Ecology, Economical Faculty, Faculty of Humanitarian and Social Subjects, Faculty of Information Technologies, Faculty of Law and Psychology, Mechanical and Technological Faculty, Faculty of Radio-Physics, Electronics and Medical Technics. As it is seen, besides the day department for full-time students the University also has evening and correspondence departments for those combining work and study.

The faculties occupy quite modern buildings. There are large lecture rooms, equipped laboratories and workshops at the University. The teaching staff consists of highly qualified specialists: professors, lecturers and assistants. The departments of the university are equipped with visual aids and technical means of teaching including films, slides, placards and computers. The students have practical training at various places outside the University.

There is a good library at the University. Thousands of books on different branches of science, technical journals and periodicals are at the disposal of the students. In the reading halls you can always see students over their books reading up for their seminars and classes.

Each academic group consists of 20-25 students. One of the students is a monitor. He is responsible for the discipline, attendance and academic progress of the group.

According to the curriculum, the students study both general educational and specialized subjects. Among them are a foreign language, chemistry, drawing, mathematics, physical training, physics, etc. Each student also follows the courses in philosophy, psychology and some others. Twice a year the students take examinations. At the end of the course of study the undergraduates submit diploma projects and take final examinations.
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