29-07-2020, 17:56

apyc aae

paai, a, paayp, aca, paaci e apyc aae (capaae i aiip aai apai acpaii) apaic . Taocy. axoi ca capaaa eapycaa xeaa poy, aoic cao ixay aiapy acpaiay, ey paycaa aa ia aipa. aa iceia ap ayiai acpaii aoa eii aa aaci a oaae, e apaaiy aya, i yy. ai, i, axoia oaa a eapyci xeaa poy eapix, coa icy y Bii. a e y acai 1863-1864 . ay ( ea-pepa acaa apaiai a ie) cacai Taoc, a aa aicaai. Taocy i a i c, y i apaic yy icei. 1870 . ci acpaiix aoea o epacia aacy yep, a 1872 . pya a paiy. ac pa i c acye (ep aoci pa), a 1880 . y c i a oaaa. aaoy aya aae apa oa, ac yc ici apaci yi. yc aaoa aic i cyyp acpca, y 1890 . acyi y acocae yia aicy, cyyp i oica. 1899 . aae aaic i ace a caae xapca a po icci op (paie). a ypa c, y o o apa e, ya ya aao apoa paaa y aa y icy, y acaa acpi e, ici aapce apaaci, o cy cia y ie a yaie yi aaoe-e. aae a ei i ioa aaa-aeaa pyxy eapyci, ai acaaia i ipaio eapyca paa paa i eapyca caica paa. 1904 i 1905 . e iy pac aoae paee a cpaax pyy a ai icy eapyca ae aecce (paapa ec . oxa). a eia y pax aex 1905-1907 . a aia cpo c oaa 19 ce 1905 . apaa i a 16 a 1906 . oe icy ypy. Bya yp a cya, aoi apoai. Bco 1910 . Bieca cyoa aaa a aci icy paapa aaa a oa oe ica ype. a ypi ceai oa ica, aa, pai icpai a opa ya oaca, i axoic a a (ai e axaaic). ac xay a o oa e o aci pao. Toi aay 1912 . yaoc apa acay aaoa aapy opa (ep apcaci pa) y aa oa, e paaa a c 1918 . apcaa a ee eapycix aax apaia (ic, 25-27 caaia 1917 .). acpe a xapo cyxoa ycia epaexa a paa paie, e i ap. axaa c aaci a oaaa (pc). iapaypy eac aae aa y a XIX c. a pai o opa, o ai a ac, aya 1893 . py, apaoi apox ee pyaa y aeax c co i eepo-aa pa, o cypaoia aa ia. p i aco ae i eapyci eaap (1906) i ai o x (1910). o opa caa apaa paacaa: poa, ai, paaypi, yica. oac o aaa a eeap aap, acaiy pia-caay cy aepy. ix acoe a co ee, apo aai. ypxoac a aopa aco, aae pa i aia epaae c, aae op pai acaii ai. aaaea o yapoa o. c y iceia aaai, aica a cyac y ape, i aaa paicac aa oy ia i ecio, aocpaac aa caa poaci. ica ayoa-ayp apc e, i ai oy ay. yicx apyax opa caa pae eapycaa aaaa apa, ai yyp, o.
29-07-2020, 17:55

ea ypai

cpie 50-x aay 60-x ao y eapycy ai ic a apa epx acaex aa. ix opi o a, paacac, aa, aac, ae. i cax pix i caax pacaio aa aae a ea ypai. o ie a a ai eapyca aii, oae eae , payee y aaea pa, axaee aai poa o. a opa eae apoa, o icop i ai. coa i oe coa, yee acai y ep ae coa a, o o ac y cea i pa. oaa capaaa aa aaoa c op, i ao oa paca o ae a. , paia, i ao o ea ypai apaic 28 i 1936 oa c yia, ep Tpoai acocaa paa Bieca oaci c'i cyaaa ioaoa. aa o, iaa aai, y a Bia a a y apaax, ae epao ii poa, aa y ea apii, a apae a a. Byc yy a y acoca oe a ocaa aca, a o y oay, y epaexai ai. ica o o i i po, o cyaa aaa a. ca aaipaia ie "epa capoa" (1964) ea ypai ycaiae: "ai aaac Bia a aa, e o ao. aa ao a po, a ai acaac ai. pax a e, poa acpoaac, ai aiy xa 'ic aiai, oa, ca pa yc a paa ai aa, eaoci opaa. aae cpaae o aepae, ai io 1943-a oa pi cy apii, oc ce' apa i ci coa. apii ai e xa, cpaii epa ya i oa pai a xoae. cai a opy pa paai: ep pa - y i , pyi aaa a ai a pyax i pi , ay c ec aaa ao. a ac ae y. aai cpa. ay a, aa . cpa yc a. a eap ac caai a a cpay ci. o a i eca. ax ai ao, capic a i i aai ay, a ai a aai i ayci aai aaa. a e ea, o ep ai ai iai, o a aaea caoa, i aiai ai ya eiy. a oae e paye. aci aa paaa e. e aa apy ao, xo ai ac. aa oi, o a cap ee-caa. e e aap a-pycy i c axa pyai o ecy. ce i i paaaic". p oy ea ypai ao y 1954 oe oay. ce a yyaa aa a paa a yo i ea. acyi y eapyci pa iepci a aee ypaici iaa, oe co y 1959- oe. a paoy eac ea ypai aa y acoice "ayic eapyci", o epao a pa, a aaa aea i aecia aoaa paapa aee "iapaypa i acaa". 1968-1972 aax paaa yac apcaa a eapyci ae "paa", 1972 a 1973 o yaaa pa acoica "aaoc". "aaoci" pae a acay capi paia a eaai i paai (1978-1990). a acaa apaa a ci i apo, ae acea ay coi paaci i ap cayc. ea iaaei ca yaa Bpxoaa aea (1980-1990) i ea (1981-1990). ycyi y 1964 oe. 1990 a 1994 o aca pacaio eapyci . 1994-1995 . aecia iicpa yyp, a 1995 a 2001 o paaa y acoice "Bo". ee a ay paacy eac i acxoy cyoy ap'epy, ao ea ypaia ac a ai. aii acaiai a i aiipa aocaa, aiipa yacoa i a-y iaa epyc poy. ica ep aa oe capx acax i acy ix apyaa y 1952-i oe oaa aaco aee " ayiy". ep opi "aca poci" a y 1960- oe, c ai ca pai o op, aica a yo a py ica i aa. yci ai epai i "pa", "acpi", "acai" i i. epx yia y pce ayc caa ae ea ypaia. aaa paa paacac aey aa, pyac i aac aaa coa. paa ipac, ac, cpaa pacyeac. Bep: "oaa", "aeca aaa", "oaa aaa", "Bo cii-cii" - ei apai aaoa, epaoeaa ay oi a cao pa, a opaa, o ca po. ea ypai paea oi a ca poa oa, e cpaa paea oac aapa poii aai aaa aia poaa pa. capa i e oi ciy icop cao iaa pa, e pa oy ao ce i ioa oaaa i paca ap, a o ayiy iy i cy pcy, o cii ap i y ap, o "ei i pai". o ec ay epa pae op i po, e a ayc i i eaie. acyoa aa a pyo xo ii ea ypaia: " o i aic o" (1963), "xae" (1966), "io" (1971), "Bo" (1974), "Bapa epaci" (1978, y 1980 oe aaaa paa pi eapyci i i ya), "o yi paaci" (1986), "ax pa" (1995), "ai opa i cea" (2000), "ypaia apa (2005). a c apia opii aii, apacaa apoc aa. i i ii aii e "Tp ai pa a" (1974), "ii api" (1987). Bi: paaia aoec "Tp capoi ee" (1971) i opi ecex ca "Tae, eapyc" (1984). o-e pypa aaic i ii pax opa: opi epa y cepi "iia eapyca aii"(1969), "Bep i i"(1976), ia epa pa axae "oa" (1985), yxoi "Bpa op" (1986), e ea i epaa, aaoi "Bpaae" (1998), y i pacae ep, a, ai, eci, copa 1955-1995 aax, ia "a aaic a" (2001) o opi epa pa axae, y i a 110 epa, aicax y po a. 2009 oe a opi "Bpa op", y ai ep, a, ai iceia. oa ia aii "ic a aapaaa" ea ypaia a o 2010 oe. e cai a "cee" i "aiae", pcea paiy ayiy i yy oacy, a acaa ip ep, pacy ai oaai ax , acee o a poa i i paaa a ay caa axa. ao aey ea ypaia poi: e yic, p ip, aypa yapc, ycei i apa, paai-ayeaic, iacapc, a-ecei, coapaeci epaa apyea aii. Tay i aa opa iceia acaa ei paacaa: epaia a, paaca, ia i eaa ipa. e epaia a caa ao acox y opaci ea ypaia. a e a pci oi op: "aeca aaa", a: "a", "aci ce" i i. Bocp cai ica aoii ea ypaiy cap axiy apiy iaa caoca aca y ai. ae "a" a aicae pae, a paiae yy, ia aaec a, y ee ai. epa ai aai paxoi pae e, ix aoi yac pi. oa pai, yc, coa o i e cepi a ca o a ai. Bepac poa oe paoci pa yce , po ce, a aa coa yaa poa i aa. aoy ca coa, poa eapyca oa y aa i acai aoci. a aa ay ay paac, caa ea ca. coa . ypaia pa aa, coy o oa ep, co o aa. i coa a caaa, a caaaxpaci. ae e ep ea ypai cap pa e ce axa, o aaa ai, pa aaee aoa pace, paac epaa axa, ai aaea e eaaa c apaea i cpaea a oay: cycpa axa, aae ay, apcea epaiac a cpoi, op pay yc a ae pc ia ipi aa. Bep: "e, c ao e co", "ec-oa oa", "Tai cpae c y" capa opiy "oa". ep "Bo cii-cii" aopa pa epae axae aao poa : e axa aiy a poe, a e aa, e xoa "i pa, i ece", yc aae i e oa aaaa cao apaia. Taoe capaae axae a ap, i oa ai aae a pyoy. ipa ea ypaia pa i capa, i ape, ay, y i axae i opa ec ac iy oa. oa, ay oi ip ep aa aae a yy: "aapoaa a", " pcaax icx", "ai" i i. o ece cyce axa ai, aaa, apae. oye ia ipa ypaia aa aaa i paacaa. aaa capaa iax "oa" i "a aaic a", a ea ai ca coa ayxoeac, i aaea y, coac ayx paax. eca aa ia i eaa ipa aa. a aaa a ap, ya, o ie a pai . ypaia aoa eapyci, e ac aiac pac, yypa aai. Toi oa aa, aaxaae co pa, oa a y xao paie coi ei. ppoa payei aa a, epaaya, y e cae aaae i eiae . epax ppoa aca aaea pia ipaa epaa, p ao ii ay ap c i ocei. pea 'a eapyca ia iapayp caa poi ea ypaia "Tp ai a", a aaae pa ii, paye e ce, xoae o a ppo, pae a ce ay. aia aa ea ypai cap eai ee, y ix paceaea eca cy aopa. Byaea apoa eea "aia-paia". a e acaea aa a pox pa i ca . ca aii ea ypai aapae pay eaeac eapyci, iapc ca pai, ca poy oy. epa "paica ca 1986" a pci aapi a . ac "apoaca a" a e co o a ayy i, yoye, a e i . o x epa ai pao . ypai aae ae: " i ye ?!". a ac a epao xpe acy, ayae ap aa acy i cao aa. a eaiaci, a aaci paaca i opa aiae aap. ai . ypaia axoiae o , o aica pao poia c o oa-cixaaia (ep "ay ", "ay aie aa aae", "aa"), aaaaea oi yai, oi axoai a pacp capx . ai ea ypaia yae, paaae, aiae paapaa paeax aaa acy, aa y. aa, ay ypaia pacpc ae a yici. yicy oa ep, ay eaxoa pa i ca ai, a a'ea aa aiy ciya. oi x ace c y ypaia-yica. a a, aapoa coix ix i apax aoace, yaicx iaa aa aex yici ea ypaia. yic aaa cpaa paic ax "oa. aay" i "apoi ecaaa aoy". ia apy, apoi apc, oic aa ea "pae" a ac o pao a aee a pay 1968-1972-a ao apcaa a eapyci. ea ypai cpaaa cae ci i iapaaypii, aica a capi apoaepax ia: "aapoa a eapyci" (1976) i "aa a" (1975). aoa o paoa oa aie ye y capi iacap "o" (1974), a oy acae yxcep acai i o a aa. . ypai cyi y caaapce iapaaypa . oe i acaaaa . aia y capi iaaei pa epaiy eac eapycix apa, a ae apaa ay "pap". aa ai aae ea ypai i iapaypa p, pae py aiaeac a pao caix paecia i aaex iapaapa. cea o apy pa ߢei i, ec aaaa i . oya pa pyy, a acaa pi a opi . aaoia "a ao o". i ix iceia ea ypaia Baci a. y pcea apy "a oy i pay caaa", o ia yyia paaea ypai o op paaia, yaea caae aoae. e e i iceia ypaia 'ea a ee. oa aaa aopa a i y apye "Tp i paia pa". ae ypaia-pa c apy pa opac iea aai, pa yoa, epyc poi, . cia, ia ieia. a-oay ypaay aay aica . ypai apy pa iy "p cpa" (1967), y o capa ep aiyx a ae aax eapycix aa: . caei, . apaa, . ypoia i ix. po aop aap apya, ae oaa c oci aeae, apiaae, paiae. coa aia opa pao aa epaa ao ox y cacix o. 1968 oe icy a ia paa ipi "ea aa" aapcaa iceia aaa Baa, epaaea eae ypai cyeca opa apayi i ia ieia. ypaiy aea epaa apx opa: "payae", "icaaacae co", a acaa epa pa acao i acaa: "yape", "aap", "aa yy". epaa a eapycy oy ae . eia "ypi", acaey icy 1966 oe. 1979 oe icy cepi "ai apoa " a ia "aiae a", epaaea ypai. a ca opy i paoy eac ea ypai yaapoa opai paoaa poaa a i py apoa, ea "a oecy pay", aapoi paaai Bpxoaa aea , Bpxoaa aea , Bpxoaa aea ioca . 'ea apaa pii eicaa acaoa eapyci (1972), paa pii i i ya (1980) a iy epa "Bapa epaci", pii eapycaa -py i ec aoia (2005). apo a eapyci op apayi aa, o ea ypai 'ea aaa acoa eapyci, a eca a a y eapycae aaae apae. "Ta, e ypac, aaa i eapyca aaa i. ypai pai acoic "aaoc" e acoica pai, a eapycae eaae a-capaay aa. a o "axa" xaaa e ao aaee eapyca. pay , ep pay pyy ipaa o ea aaa yyp. o ai pa a yo, ay o ypai e ia ep, a xae ii",- aop apayi. apa, y opax ea ypaia c payee aoa icii acaa iapayp, yxoa yyp aoy eci o a aaea yaaa i payaa, poaaoaa i acaa, eaeaaa poaa caix eax a cae i cycee, ca poa i i apoa, paa caix ia-apax iaax i epaaax. e e cpaa: ea acaea ac e a y aix i cpa, apa, o y capa. epy: ea cee acaea... acaea a poa i pyo. acaea a poa oe pao...
29-07-2020, 17:55

Baci Bia

iapaypa caa Baci Bii paa i aea aa ca acae i aapoae eca aa oe eapyca aaa iapayp i yyp XX cao. Baci Bia icei apaaa aey, i ce a, paai, paayp, epaa, yic. e ao o i pa i icei. Ty caapoac o aey, acaa iiyaac pacpic aoa aao, opac i caaaaa. a paa Baci Bii, aa ai o opaci coa ae. Baci Bia acya e yyp eapyci (1970). apa paa pii eapyci i . ya (1972), yaapoa iapo aapo oa i aca pcia pcea acee poia iceia aapo cic iaa aaa aaia (1978). apaic Baci Bia (capaae i pco iox Baciei, i ceai iox p, B. ici ) 16 a 1911 oa c Ţi yaa paa ica oaci ea cca c'i. pa oi eca ac apa ca aa Baci aciai c' aac iip y oyax apoy.
29-07-2020, 17:54

ec ypo

ec ypo ai pa ce eapyca iapayp a aay cao. paac, o "axaic cao i apa eapyci i aa ca paaa cae ci a iapaypa ie" ("aipai"). ac yiai opa y aee "aa ia" o pia i apa y cai ice a yaa. ep op ocexi axii i aai eaci cae. i i ec ypo acy a iapaypa pa, o i caa paicaac a capoax "aa i". acyoa pac y pey opy acoy, cac apia aca coa. o a ae aaa i pa iapaypa paacac. " e ao 20-aoaa ie iapaypa eaci , ae aap a pa, acae ae ca apaae piae", a y 1929 oe ca capoa "aea eapyci" a ec ypo paic ia ap, ipo y, a yaa, aci api, y oac i i eapyci iceii. ipai aa acoe ca oc oa, a apaa oi a i aei 1910-1930-x ao cao. ec (cap apaai) ypo a cax io, apaic y aea cca c'i 31 cye 1892 oa ai. o o i, peca a paaa. aeca aoc acyoca apa a xe. ˸c ya apaaa i paaa opapao a ecaii. pe, ayc a paaca-aia eaci, o paapyi cy ia ap (yoi), aiei, aioi i i ae. 1909 oe ec ypo cyi y pai coa apaiai i aa eci aia cypa apy, yeia y ai pyaicx acoica ca-apaaa ipyy "ap", "ooc a", "Boa ya". "aei iapayp i acaa eapyci" (T. 2) oa aeaa, o eea acoic "ooc a" aac ai 1911 oe, a ayiaax y i iapaypx i yicx opax "paaac apcae caapae", "epaaea iee apox ac a cao i caa cpaiaci". ai ( 2) i ea ep ep ec ypo. oc ceaoae acaee aaoa aia. aee, aicaa eapyca aii ay, aa: "... a oa a e aoiac y i a pa "eopycc" i "eopycco", a xae e oi y, a i aap eapyca oa, i a, oa, pyaa acai ya, ay oe aopa i ya pacica oa, a xae eapyca. oa aa paipaa aa ai a, co oy i ao y ca-apay apaia". ˸c e aaa o c' i caoa aa. ep aipaa ax e, y aa ey a aiy ai. a paoa ap aa, i p ec acaic poe aox e. pa cipoy o paya aac ep "a ii", i aica 1911 oe. a y o aaa aiy a i aaa a oyi pa i apoa. a 1911 oe pexa y epyp, e a acy aaac paaa a ie ao "Bya". eaae ec ypo pai apcy api. cy a aci oe ep apoca a pcep "oap", ae, ac aa o yp-aipa (1915), pai a capo iaoce "aa". a oe, i epypci ep, paa ica ep. Ta y o opaci apaiac apica a. opa pa opa a-aaapcy aa i apa opaa-acai ao aaaca eapyca aii. icop i ac aaaai ec ypo ca yeia aiix paix ae. ea axi epa iepica a, e e aiy a aa, e cie aapac a ie (a o oa ypo axoic ip yxy). a o aax iyi i, i a oe ayaac y. oae paae aiyi ai ca ao i a ocpaa . Baa ay, ay e apa ae paee. e ac ya ae ec ypo pa ip a pa y aei, a 1917 oa. acy pa paa apocai cya cypa apy a aiecax i apaax, y aipy acpii i acacpii i i epa y o, aa cpa y pacai, ca po y pyax io a aaaa coa, aac a ai "opaai pai". pa o ep apa i aa a aa y ep "eipa", i aica 1937 oe. pa aa ao aop, o "a apa io epa", aicae, ypaa ii aa: ypa pa aa i pac, aa cy ioa, i , i ya, ap'e, ia epa a . a pc, xo i ay... pi e, i, pacy! c po aay a aaa acy. e aa , ao aai "apoca pai", o 30- a y pea cyxa aiaaai oppaa i aa-aca eaci. aica aa pacaaa aae a "aa", capaaa cpay cypa eapyca opa i ayoa iiei. eci aae i ia pae a aoa apaiai "a ae eapyci" (B). pa "aaca oppai" xaei aci y yay i eapyci cp pai cpoy caayca. po yeia iiaa "aa ae..." apaai i ec ypo. ecaa pacaia 1931 oa acya a ao ci aapy, aa ae -a paa. Bci a o ca caica aci aaac oi. caix aaax ce e oi aoi, o "iix aa-apax e e" i "a apaiai B... ioi e aea i a ao ioi ioa e y", ae i ya aaopa a cpo i aapa a iapayp, yci paaa ce o. epaoa aa y epaci paeapca-ayica iaoii i e iaa, y , o caea ya co aae: " xia oa aoy ayci, a aae, i ae 20-ao pa ca, aae, i eacp yeia aa ycix pao paaca a, apax a aca pai, aae, i paa apaai "pop", "aii" i i. apa븢, a acaa o o epaai paoi capoa iepa ypaa ao a pycaa iepiy ii aa, xia o ayci, a pai cpae paeapy?! e i e!". ap oa iceia, ayiaa aee "iapaypa i acaa" 1992 oe . ixo a aa "pxi a aaappa, aica ece ypo caicix aceax", aaaa ya i paye pae ec ypo caeaa aaea, caicaa , eapycaa aa. oxa i aia apaai iceia i epaoai o cyac, ocii a cpoi i cpy pi paaca paicaci. aiiaa ec ypo y 1957. ap ec ypo 1938 . a cyxoa. axaa a Bacox oiax ica. ec ypo ca a-opa ai pao cypi x: a aa-apaa a pacaia paeapca iapayp. ip aaica ap a i aae yi eapyca, caa i apa poaa pa. a ec ypo aa ica a ya ece-aa ya oaca i ix aaia. p pax aa caa pai pa apoae apoae i cay ecaoy. " xay pa!" yciae a y ep "o". o a ac oe ya a aacaa-aa capa pa aoeac i paapy "a epa" yxoaa aiy, cepi apy paceeaa icaa. cce cya epaei yaaca paaa ai cey. ep "e acie a" o aiaa o apea epa y yy: e acie a! a apa ece, a aa icpca e o. e acie a! a paei ce c paca o!.. o aaici ac a paacpaa acpca capi piaa aa i cpaa opaaci. o ep "Bixop" yop acaaa aiy y aci api (y op a o a 20 ecoa pyxy). aaiaa opaa eaci aap acy y ax aa븢ax ia ap i eapa (ep "oye p ie", "Beap"). apa aa aa aii aay cao caa ipa ec ypo a y opa. a cyaci ep pacp eapycay ay iocy oy i ai apcix paia. opa acae ca ei i eaoaci: T o ixa o. y a, y 'ea, coa paei ay o; T o, c aa, cea, cea, ea ea i, ao. aoa i coe yap a yapa ee a xa xa ox paa. a axa aye oa xa, pi ae, aa ai ao, ypiac a, cpa icpcy p apcix aa. ae ea cpa axoeac i cac. ec ypo aaae opa pox caax i paax poae, ixa-eapoae, payaae paii ycxoa coa, aia-aaae (ep "op", "Beap a op", "opa a cxoe coa", "ycai"). o opa eaop i cao, oe cxiae 'ia, oe iae ay cai ecao, o yxa: "i oi i pacopy // aa oa yp op!.." ("Be oa"). a a opac ec ypo 20- a. a ac paae xa o i ax ia "apa" (1924), "aai" (1925), "yop'i" (1926), "opac" (1927), "e" (1929). acyae ecioe e peca y pex opx ya. aaapo, caica iaoi aea aaacy ai, o aaa yx ycax pao, aaca iaiai paicaci, pia-pocx pao i acyx opaa. a caa i epaopac . ypo. aici epypci ep o pa aa co aae cya i yy, cpa e oi ipaa iopy oy. caei ac yc caa ia a o poy a o apaaaac ypaa epayoa a caei a. y e ao iix cye, poya paa. ia o acai a a cye ca epy, o pa o i ii aa? ep, o axoia a pai xy, o paaca c paia a . ec ypo i aao: a o opac paiaac apay aa paeapca iapayp. ca ace, o e ayic ace, aa ayaea a oaa , a "coi ay aa" ("aa ay"). , p, i oa pacya ycyee o, oa aa-aaia, y pai "aaa". ie "opi i ii" (1928) ia ap (iep yoi) pa i paee op ai iceia-ea ai caica iaci, ai o a "eapyca-paoae iapayp", acaaa, o o "a ao a ayicx i". aoac ipa opaci aa i a iaoa e e iaaia paeapca cipaaaci, a x ex ayx, i ye epaa ycxaaa, oa, a-acay aea. caia a yay ppoaaica ep . ypo, e pcyiae pa opaac coaa aicy, iayac pao. a iy ex pa aeci op "ia ie...", " oa...", "paeci", "", "ae ea", "ce o" i i. aaoea cyipa poy eapycy pacy, aoi, o "ppo ap ce " ("o opa"). aa yox cpo a pci aocay pa, i aa aiaaac i ac. aa ca i paca o eapyc i e oe: "a ea pacop eapyci, // ea e paca" ("a ea"). apaco poaa pa aaaaa , a-capaay aa aya aao ce: ... cppa cpi pi. Ta, aea , a, aaa po a ea poaci, po a yoa pac. Ty e ay i a, i apoaci, ya ce y, c... ("ap") cpa poy ppoy ayxoe i y cpa, ocp poa acaa. ec ypo ae ca, xo i cia, capoa icopi iapayp. a, eyoa, pa e ea. To a ia ap cpaia aoci ec ypo a "ox, cpaa ex aa i iceia...". aaa: icop iapayp a e oi ay xi i ipyi pai acaa coa, ae i icop iceiix ia i pox opx ca.
29-07-2020, 17:54

ec aae

ec aae (capaae i p Baciei a) apaic 1922 . y acy pcaa, a oaaa. a aae, i aac ao y icop aa iapayp, pci cae ia paa ep aae-eapyci. ec aae ya aiy aiy. acaee, yyeac o aaa aey pic a 30-40- . i a caicix ppci i pyo cycea a. c caay aaac aa pa. xoac opa c'i. aa ic i, y aca acoiaci, co ecaacaap icy i paaa y apaax ao ica. Bep p aa caa ei paa, i epi opaii cyxaai i ai. oaae p yc cp oe paa o y yy icopa ioa paoia, pyaa cae ep paa aee, cya ii a eapax. ai ep pa aa a axaee po pae, paoc eapyca ppo, i piai, i axi o ae. Bep 15-aoaa aa aai yiaaa pcyiacix aeax i acoicax. e io 1937 o. oy a aax y e i apaa aa i ai, ix p o ioi e aa. oe ya ya eix apoa, a paaa a papy aoa, a opapacpaoax i a ecy. e e y aei ya ae i 1938 . acyi y ici exiy, e o pay oi a a. a caiax, py ay poca e o a o , a cax ex cya y xiye. o ya ya pa. e, e a i o, e epacaa ica ep, y ix caoa cae y epaai. a o aiae, o paoaa o a aa, ayiaa icaa. epaae ep a a acia iapayp, axac opac i ya i acia aaoia, aa acoa aci op epa: cae, aa, pe, pao. a co ap ca, ae cipoae icaae aai o a oa cpo, aya caoy, eaaaac, ecepceac , i oi a ppoe, a epaax a aya ce pacaa i o. aaa a epaae ic, i p aaoe eapycaa aa aiipa yiaa aoaea pa "eapyca a", e paaaa i aa pceea, apai a epya aaxcaca cci paa ya cai. a capoax "eapyca a" aai pyaaa ap eapyca icopi. Ty yep p paa "apoi apc icopi eapyci" . aocaa, cacia paoc poa o. "eapyca ae", "oace ci" aai pyaaa o ep pa aa, i 1942 . yep ca aicaa ceaia "ec aae". To a i ao i xao c ae ec aa aeaa ica caay ca , a ae y y, e aac eapyci acoic "o x", paapa oa aiip ypa, o eapyci p i paai. ec aae ca aecia paapa, a ica. e a ep a opi ec aa "ae eci", i e aaaoa "opi ipi yi". Ty aicaa epa o ia aa "a xyix px oaa aca", aicaa caea cpao. 1944 . ec aac aiy co pa, ao y ae. yc caay eacoy, e aoc aca ia, , o y epie, y pae cycpaac apca ei i eai ao y aep epaeax acoa y aypy (cp). a epaa paccae aia, poi i. Tpa o ipa ya, o eap cay oy, i epax acaea oi ciaa acaa. aypy aae aaic iaia a, o aaic epie. apa oc a, ae a-paeay axoi apaya y epax, aya aica paa "a aai ap " pa aei a eapyci a acpia pai a pyo cycea a i ay. pya aca a ye. ipa ap, e a oe, o aoiac a iia paaa, a ypia c', ya a xee a. aypy, y aepax apaax, i epaaa pai. ec aae, acoi paicy oy, aca cya epai, acpaa ypaicii aai capa i yypci, aac epaaai. e aep aypci ep eaa ax aociax. ec aae paa ica ep acia op, a acaa ep-iip, ep ix "Bi" 'iic pyy 1948 ., i aa "oi y ecy", aaa 1944 . aypy a aicaa i pya aa ec aa "i a o aii", pceaa py Biiy, a acaa aa "" (apyaa 1949 .). aypy a pyi opi aii ec aa "ia ey" (1948), e capa ep aa ecio. a aoi opi, ae p i aa. i a epa, pceax aie. caix opiax ec aae a epa pci eapyca icopi, ccay apae, pacy ape, oy yay, Baci icay, aciy aaoiy, ycai ci, e y aoc i aa (ec, Bi, aaea, aoc, oaaa), aa pacy eapyca ppo i ac aa apay o i epac aae, cay apoy. aypy ec aae aaa a acy a acoica " eapycaa ", "ao", ⸢ iy epaicy eapycai ee. aoc exa y ay cpai i a yaoa o c'i. aa ica a epa: a ye o i. i a. ca, i a aa aaa, epaicac apca ei, a pyac a ac cepi aia. a e, acaa cpai ii eapycix iceia. icax a ai ec aae aa axaee opai Baci aa, aiipa apaeia, ia ieia, acaia o caeai. apic apce ei, o ae a ai acae o aae axee, e iya ep. 1952 ., yo y eype, ec aae co yaae yx ox caix opia "Bi" i "ecpoac". ai i ci a ai aaoa "yca paca". e a op opa ec aa o ac o cepi oaai oa aoia i eapycaa icya ayi i acaa -opy. ap ec aae y 1978 ., axaa a eapycix oiax y eype (cpai).
29-07-2020, 17:53

Baa acoci

icop, icei, iapaypaae, yic, paaca-ai e, aai , Baa acoci, i aca cya y pyy a ceaia Bac, apaic 27 acpia (8 icaaa) 1883 a acey aecia icecaa aea Bieca yepi (ep oi pa) y xea ci. o icecae aoae yia. paaa y epypy, cyxa ei epypci yiepcie (1904-1905). 1909 oa paaa capaapo pai ae aa ia Bii, aaa epa y Bii eapyca iapi. a aa pyaa yic, p apy, aaai aco icapa ai. 1 cye 1910 oa aa ia yiye a caix capoax apoy icop eapyci Baaa acocaa, a aco ae a a y pyapi apia yx. aicaa a eapyca oe, ia acya yaea aeaa aceaa icopi aa. a yaa ia xa icopi... epa yap, pci Baay i api acoci i a ep ec aapa. Topac Baaa acocaa coa ai aci aaoi: Bac apyaa yco 3-4 p, ae oy oa a pa, pa ica... ica y ac a aaa apao. caiae ae pai aaa yyp ei o aii yic i p apy, i ei aa ya i c. ix Baa acoci aac a paa eapyca paia ca yypy a ca oe, a ix paa aaa yyp apoa, a a pa cey payaa eapycae i.... aaa epa cycea a i aya Bii aepacii ocai, Baa acoci, acac opae, a apaiaapa api pcica yac (1915), apia pae paa aepai Biaa ca iocaa (i i eapyci), ca ioaa aia apaiai y eaeaci i eaeaci eapyci. ai aapa pacaeaa a iapoa aepi aae (1916) eapaya pacaio eapyci, e acoaic pa eapyca a cape caacoa pa. 1918 oe Bii a opaa eapyca paa a ae oa yeia, y ao i Baa acoci. aa 1918 oa cap ioca Tap. aaca a paaca-aia eac Baa acoci aaea ae ox apyia i xpcaa, paye aey oa (1916-1917), ia oaco icopa-yic apy a eapyci ai (e i oi ac?, o aoe apa, p aay eapycaa apa XIX c., yxoa aaia iapaypa eapyca oe, ci pcyii aa XVIII c. y eapyci i ie, apai pyx a eapyci, o pa ea oay eapycy, aaae ae, a capaeapyca iapayp, paia apa, eapyc a ace i a ix). oi ix yai iy aic i ep: icapa-paaci apc (Bi, 1918). 1919 oe Baa acoci axoi y ap eapycix caica-paepa, i capi apoy ay . Baa acoci aaa y aie iicpa. 1919 oe apaa ocii aai, ae 1920 oe ae. a apaiaapa apaca apa cypa oca ayai axo eapyci. ac aica piiapaa ipy ai aeai i oa (acpi 1920) Baa acoci pyc a pai a aaa aaoy y apae a eaeac eapyc pa a e y paoe epa ceeapyca aepi pae (epace 1921). aai icii aea ei, epai, Baa, ai, pa, xi, eap (1920-1923). ae ao a aia eaci, a ypaa (1923). paaa y iicpce eapycix cpa y ie, aa iapayp acoic pi, pyaa a o capoax cae ep, aaai, apyaa eai ox apyia. aica aoec aip (1923), pceay icapay iyay eapyc Ba pyo acica-pci (eapyci) coi, ayiaa eaica Biaa ca iocaa i aoaa i ca cay cayy icop eapyca (pca) ii a eapycaa iceca a X a XIX c. (yce ai 1924-1926). 1927 oe Baa acoci epaexa y ic, paaa papa eapycaa paaa ye, y eye, ca aaia, eae capaapo , yaxoi y aici a axoe oia capace . paaa y aicii o eapyca o, paaa pa aep apaii, apaioa apai cei po pi eapyci, y i oe p pacii oaa. aa . aaixi apaaa paai a aee cyacaa eapycaa apca i papca (1929), aa paaa a aapai apa yypa eapyci. eia y pope eapycaa paaicy, aica ycai pa acia aaoia, y yay, apy pa opac eapycix iceia i ea iyaa, aac epaaai pyca o (. Taco), aica (. ii), oca (ia a), aa (. . pca). apa aia eac aaa yoaa, icopa, iceia a aapaa 1929 oe: y paii aax yyp caea aa aa ce cpy ecey. Baa acoci ae aca eaeaa capaapa aii ay , a pacaiy 1930 oa apaa a cpae aa ae eapyci. Tpai o ypax ica i ac. acaoa aeii 10 pacaia 1931 oa o cai a 5 ao y apaa. Ta aopa apaa i 23 cye 1938 oa paccpa. y e o i 55 ao. pia: accpaa iapaypa: op eapycix iceia, ayex api opaai aaia ya / ya. . ai, . o, . ipi, pa. . iapia, ae. . o, . ipi. ic: iaop, 2008. 696 c. [8] c.: i. (eapyci iaop: ep 1. acaa iapaypa).
29-07-2020, 17:53

eao oei

eao aai oei apaic 12 pe 1895 . y aapy yp'aa Biecaa aea Bieca yepi (ep aoci pa ica oaci) y c'i eaa xia. oei ei ap aoi i, ae e apai e c cai, a aai apy aaia, y yx ciax aai apaaapa. ˸ (a acaa aaa eaoa ai) poc , aoi, i y c'i. epa i y a i ee (y oe oca) oeia apaiic ia, ia, ca i ap. ' a aaia, ea a ocix i, ae paa e ypaac eapyca o i ca poa yyp. eao, aae ca co capa ccp iceia i oa oca acea eapyca i oca aia icopi . epa1, e ica cp xapaap, i aioy i a a pe aca xaac a c'i, a a ca-aca. aaaee a, opa aa, i aa ax ea i o aiai cyxa eci, ai, po icopi, o cai i pacaai ai ay. eao ei i ca ai, ao a e y.
29-07-2020, 17:53

ixac ay

a, paai, epaa ixac ay (capaae poia oi) apaic 8 icaaa 1908 oa icy ci cyax. ac aa o i ypca y exiye (1928) paaa acaia y c oa ocaa paa. aa aa aaa iapaypa opac. ep ep ayiaa aee eapyca ca 1925 oe. aa acy ep ixac aya ( aica ix ceaiai caa ., aye, paiai . ., Mix. ., a.) pypa a a capoax pcyiacaa pyy. ep opi epa xa yp a 1931 oe, pa o iac pya aa ia ixac aya a. pa y ac a y oay, paaa y pai ae poa oaa, o pyc ic, yaaac cpaapa y epaee. 1935 oa paaa y aee iapaypa i acaa. a ica apca aaa cpocix ipa a iceia (. iyia, aiipa ay, B. apaoa, . eapoia), aac epaaai ( . yia, . epaacaa, . apaa, . cpocaa, aaaicaa, acp i i. aapa). caia axac . aoci, epaaa o op a eapycy oy. a ixac aya ao o poi ax (1930), e a iyc pacaa pa ocexi caicaa yaia, i aa -a Taea (1936) pa aei caii. Bo ixac ay i capai pea (pyaaic aeax aaii x, aea eapyc), poa caic apaax i cax eapyci, ae yai aop opii apo. Bep, a, aaai, apc, p apy ixac aya yiaaic aeax poa ea, a, eapyca ca, eapyc aaca, Bieci paeap, iep eapyci, aaci eapyci, iapaypa i acaa, y acoicax aa, o, po cei, aoia i aacia eapyci. e a-capaay paapya aaoy aey e o cyaa. 1936 oe o ecacaa apaai i acyii a 8 ao oe. aiy a apoe iip. pa aacy cep ixac aya pacaa ace y ca aceea ie: ...paexa poc, aai epy iy... a ac apoi acoi apaaic, o i ya pa, ai pexai opa apic oaciipca oaci, e epaai ac pyi i aipaa y aaci apa aep. e ep a c ai i pai y a a acp. ac aai ey iey e aoi i coi, aex ce cai c poi a. e y o coi, o e o eca ceci. a, ai acai, yc o epaaa ea o paye, e oi, e aaa, e pyi. o oi eae ecia, p ae ecia o ac pyxy... ya aaa ycix. Toi acai paica-eapyca aa paaaa caii eci a cpaa cyy. e e cix. a yi ypy, o oxoa a pyax oaa i iyia ap aa eapyci a ixac ay... a cea 1937 oa. y oi coiac a 29 ao. pia: accpaa iapaypa: op eapycix iceia, ayex api opaai aaia ya / ya. . ai, . o, . ipi, pa. . iapia, ae. . o, . ipi. ic: iaop, 2008. 696 c. [8] c.: i. (eapyci iaop: ep 1. acaa iapaypa).
29-07-2020, 17:52

Toap op

a Toap op apaic 1903 oe c apa eecaa aea Bieca yepi. y y poa pii, yc a paay, co iaai ay , paaa y pax icix ae i acoica a eapyci pa. cpa iapaypx aa aa, a, eϻ. ep ep apyaa y 1925 oe (acoic paci aa). Bi opii epa o aei (1927), eaei (1928), Bepai (1929), pa op a yp (1934), aa ai aaaii (1930) i ia-aa e pa aa, aa i e (1935). i oi aa iceii ao acy, pa p ii acpia, aa paae aaee, aa epy cey yy ca aa. a aipa a-paa e o e a ao eaaa, o c o cpaa paac paace yaaae aaiapy. a pacapaaaci aeax pax iaax oa aa yo ae ai acae y (aicaa 1929 oe) i aex epax aa. Bei aapca aac a pa oy ciya aix paax: oi a eca coi, a (ai acae y) Toapa opaa apaai eciie, aeaci, yaiix acpox, i, aoae, y , o ao a iaa yaia. ao aacep a e o a-capaay a aa opaci, ica ca ipy. Tay Toap op ac epaaa paoa. epacap a eapycy oy aco op aocaa, . ceea, . eecaa, . aoaa, . axyi, . epaacaa, paa ixac ayo epaa ayp a o ac paa . apaa pyci. e i y e ai ae a apaaa eapycay ay. 3 icaaa 1936 oa Toapa opaa apaai opa i 3 acpia 1937 oa ac oix aaa paccpai a cpaie apa acia. o a ay 34 a. pia: accpaa iapaypa: op eapycix iceia, ayex api opaai aaia ya / ya. . ai, . o, . ipi, pa. . iapia, ae. . o, . ipi. ic: iaop, 2008. 696 c. [8] c.: i. (eapyci iaop: ep 1. acaa iapaypa).
29-07-2020, 17:52

paia xoi

paia xoi apaic 9 caaia 1883 . a o ae a ax cayx acia y yay i ya oaca. aia o a Bi, ei caa, ca coeacai yaa capa eapyci opa, caia eaaa eapyca pa Biaa ca iocaa, p aa aaa yyp. Ty xoi aaac, y cae o ae. y pca cae op. Bi a xoia yxoa aca, e caa i ace, i paac, i ii ay. Ty eciic oi o op ay. a opae aapaac o , y ao e co cya. aa paia apo aai xoi axoi ca eaa xeaa poy -a aaoi. a paecii yaa, paaa y ieci ap. pa cao y ap i ca. ioc ce apa aapaa xaya a c , ciae acaa iapaa aaaia yy, oa, ay i e ia aay ia aya. Ta, y Bieca iaii, e aa ca aya paia xoi, y ap i acax ce a a a, ay ype e aa a e. aa, a paaa caoia, yaaa o xiia-xaaiy oy. e i a o oe caae. payc oi ai o, paia aiy y oy. I paic ai ce. a e poa i e aeaa aapa aac paa, a a a apay aya. e e po apac a aa eaaa opaa, ae epy o apai y acpo. acpoai xoi ye caaa e ai pa, o i cay yc ao aaaae. aapa paia ac apy paia aycii, ae ceiac, o aopy a apa ypc e o.