30-07-2017, 15:05

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30-07-2017, 15:04

"ֲ " Ѳ ʲ - ʲ , Ρ β

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30-07-2017, 15:04

"" - ʲ , Ρ β

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23-07-2017, 00:51

paia xoi

paia xoi apaic 9 caaia 1883 . a o ae a ax cayx acia y yay i ya oaca. aia o a i, ei caa, ca coeacai yaa capa eapyci opa, caia eaaa eapyca pa iaa ca iocaa, p aa aaa yyp. y xoi aaac, y cae o ae. y pca cae op. i a xoia yxoa aca, e caa i ace, i paac, i ii ay. y eciic oi o op ay. a opae aapaac o , y ao e co cya. aa paia apo aai xoi axoi ca eaa xeaa poy -a aaoi. a paecii yaa, paaa y ieci ap. pa cao y ap i ca.
23-07-2017, 00:50

paoi

paoi... ae i c ea ai i e ce, oi i a eapyci. a aoi ecioi 'iac a pyaax apa a o eaa acoe, axa aee, ecpy i, a o ox oyax pa, xea i ici. paoi acao paia i aica, papo a pe, apxeoaa, aa, iceia, iica, eaoa, yica, acea eaoii, icopi, apxiyp, aopy i apaii poaa pa, aapa eax ex i iapaypx yoi, ae aep apa, o c apaa eac ac e epaoi ii aaaa apa. opae a paoia e apa i a aa acaa, iapaypa, apxeaoi, aopa. eaci op ao apaia epapacaa pyoe: poy epaxoii ap, ap epaiaic co epo i, a cai iapayp epoi epaapaic o ia aaea, oa aca aya eapyca y eiox ex apoax.
23-07-2017, 00:49

aica ayo

i cax ax ea yyp 20-30-x ao XX c., paayp, a, paai, ap, pcp, aca-aice aica ayo (capaae poia oy) apaic 3 (15) a 1882 oa ci paoaa-yaia (ca ca a apaaia). xyi ace c epaexaa ic, e aa aaac a pay o. aica co apoapxocy oy, yc ici apaci yi. aa aa ca, ai paia aiy aa i aoc ici paaa, a aaaa ci. paaa pya a y, paa y aaie, cecapa y ici o. 1917-1920 aax ap i pcp epaa eapycaa aapca pa i aei. 3 1920 a 1922 oa aa acaaa aea apo aicape ace . i acaaia eapycaa caeaa apa. 1920 oe cap eapyci apo ap, i aac pya aya, a 1932 oe apa ay -3. a opy eac aica ayo aa epa i aaa, i 1908 oa yiaaic aeax aa ia, oa, acoice ya, aaaxy aaa eapyc. a iy aai (1913). ica yapci, cap, apo aa븢i. coa cyac pa po aicaa aya e apoaci. aapac o po aaa aci aaoi y e eapyca paca iceaci 1911-1913 ao. 3 1917 oa cya paayp. aica a 40 ec, i 1917 oa caiic a cax eapycix apa. po ix oe caae, icapa ii, ia po, a a, po, y, yay, aa, a ypa, ao, aa, ica aoa, e o, epao, pa, ea po, iaio i i. ap yicx i apaax apya. o aca-apaap i eac. 1937 oe aica ayo ecacaa apaa opaai i 28 epac aa oa paccpa a poce 55 ao. pia: accpaa iapaypa: op eapycix iceia, ayex api opaai aaia ya / ya. . ai, . o, . ipi, pa. . iapia, ae. . o, . ipi. ic: iaop, 2008. 696 c. [8] c.: i. (eapyci iaop: ep 1. acaa iapaypa).
23-07-2017, 00:49

aiip a

apaic aiip a 27.05.1900 . c aa, eaa a cai apae aoa yaaa ya a xy a ica a cia. o aaax e o. yc caay oa, o y apoapxoca oe apaei, co apacoe yia ip. 1916-1917 . c' ( ea) ayc yca yepi, e co 3 ac aapoiaa apaaiaa yia. ep (a pyca oe) aiip a aa ica aac yo yi. caaiy 1917 . pyc paa aa y ic, ca aya cecaacaapa o. 1918 . aica co ep eapyci ep oi. acpiy 1919 . - caaiy 1920 . paaa acaia 21- ica eapyca aaoa o. axap ao icy a cyxo, co 1920 . pao ypc , ac ao ai acai o aeaa eia, o a ye, a cpeaa paa oec, i acaap y xae ea ocia.
23-07-2017, 00:46

y oac - ͸aa ap

co y cy pexa "cap capo aopi ca caii icpyeai". ͸a, paaa cae oy apoy, apa poy yy. e paaaic, o ye pa . a "aa ap" aipai coa. e aypa, o epa pai a ae i, pa acae aopia ea cy. aoy aac pae p p ay. aa, aa p aya, aaaea eciy. a pa a ce y, aa aapaa e, o acai y acpo ay. aa axae aci apoaa. aeac, ay a apoa, aci aae pyci ecia aa. oci o acai a (ea cy). iae ix a pa aci. a cpa ca pac, ai ayic a ͸aa pi. aci i ci cycpic ao. aaac oa. "aci a y, a ci cpe, op, a o paiia oa o i poi". yac, xo c i acyai a ͸aa i pe aaiic apicaa epaa ip. aci, aa, pai a ae aay. e yi a cyepia. aci p, ecia aoc aaa.
9-07-2017, 16:27

a pa

apo icei eapyci a pa pay cpay y opaa, Iaa eea, aci aa capi apoaa acy, i aaa e aay yy eapyca, ix eai. aeai, caaaa, eapap aca coa aap aiix aaa, paaa, 'ec, iacap, px i yicx apya pyoa ica eapyc i eapyca y ip pox ae: y ac cio ai, y a aeaa ixae, y ac acaea ae i 80-90- a XX cao. o epoi aaacoa a i ea i, ix cycpaae y ac i, ii oa apoc i ei, ce i apaci xap, icap ocai i epoi ia a a, ii ea e axaa, e cyepaa, o "", aypa. a apai pa iaae, coae i aaacoa pocae . 'ic a ce yy aca coa 21 ce 1934 oa a ai븢e, y c ii op acoiaa paa. ac apoca paei 1986 oe aea paia I. paa a apyaa pa, o peca eaoy pay cpa iceia. ec ico pci aey a opaci ep "ii op", y i ea pae cayaaa eapyca i: a ii opa a ii opa aa ee opa. a a-pao, a cio a paoci co. aaac yy icei y pyia cca c'i: aa cap cecaea, ai aa paaia-aacia. ae a pa ia yac caia ai aocy aay, a e o ac ec ap a xaai e (y c'i ix o oce). ii a caaee o ceaoy aaa aaa co e a ixaai aaa. ica aa apaia, i oix iceia iaaiaa aae, o aaea ao. epaae a aeaa ixae i i acae ac o o aeaia acpaaa i y aaax "ya", "a co iaepa a ae", "o a ay aae", " ixi yae", " ay a apoi", paaax "a epai", "paae pi" i ix. a aca coa a apci eca a ca ipaii: " ay xaia ci i apoc, i e... a ay paa oi p o a ao , ae pa a caa aoa ae, a aa a oi ac a opac". apoa a ea aaac aae ac: y 1940 oe xoe ao y ep ac iaopca cioi. iepaca aya epaia yoy, ae ac ae ai븢 a aca yy icei o ce a oy apy, i 1949 oe acxoa co cioy. ae a pa ya aaia cp oe, y pae ao ai apo icei eapyci pa yo, o cao a cae yiaa 'a. o a, o poa oe eai yc aap a " pa", paac ca a apai, pyaa ei aaa caia a yo i ayia aae acpaaa cae ci iapayp. oe a axaic iapaypa, aa ca ica ep, ay eaoa, o x p⸢ o a aee ypaici iaa , e aaic aai i aeaii iapaapai. aypciai aa paa i a aia, aca a. yi a (1952-1957) cai aca iapaypx cpo aep y aii. a, ep "o paapca" apyaa 1952 oe acoice "o", o i i i ep "ai븢ca pae", "poa ee", "oi", aa aa a pa a i e ca. o aa yiepcia "poa ee" aaa ce o eia aoec "yc p: aa ao cei" pa oi ecaa iepa, acea pi. a aca coa i aaa caa iapaypa eaci 1961 o, ai oiy "iapaypa i acaa" 'iac aaae "pa a". aeai, ai e payei aa coa aca, i paa paye, o a oa y ae ae, coa paaa a iapaypa i paaca ie. ac yo a yiepcie a apai paaa a pox acaax y pax aea "aya i xia" eapyci (1957-1962), acoica "o" (1962-1975), pa ac a ipyx acaax y ae iceia eapyci (1975-1986), y cae eai eapyci eia y pa ղ cecii eepaa caei (1978), 1987 oa cap pae eapycaa oy yyp, y 1988 oe aipaea yaa pxoaa aea , 1989 oa ao paap acoica "aa". a iapaypa ie, i paaci i, I. . pa aciaica, ay ace pai oae, a o acyaa 1994 oe apa ae apoaa iceia eapyci. ia opx oya y ap aaa ca opi "yi a o", i apyaa 1965 oe. o i i i aaai, i ai opii "a aci aae" (1967), "o a ay aae" (1973). a I. pa o o icei-paaic, i epaaaa aaa paa aei ia a a. epa caa cep aca ap eaoi pa i paaai eapycaa apoa a ia a a i acae ac, a caaea acyx paaa: "a epai" (1972), "paae pi" (1977), "ae i y" (1984), "pae a i" (1993), "e ce ie" (1996). a ep e aci 1979 oe aap yaapaa iapaypa pi i . aeea. aoe pox paaa y 1991 oe a iacyi "eapyci" pcp I. apaa acep eii i "a epai". a pa i ce i aeai paayp aap 'ec "ia aapa yi" (1986), "ea cpaa a" (1988), "aae e apa" (1988), "o e aia" (1988), "oi p e paa" (1989), "pai" (1989), "pa" (1994) i epaa "oa pa axo apa" (1991). c opac iceia a iacoci paai a icap oa eapycaa apoa, e ea yxo cpa i aaaa a. epacaa ia cpa aa aeaiaa acaa coa 5 cye 1996 oa, ae acac y caix opax.
9-07-2017, 16:26

opac aa ayei

a ayea apaic 16 aa 1925 . y . aciei aa paa oeca oaci. ac apeca cy acyi a yiepci, i co y 1950 . a ac cao aya ayea cyi y pai ayica api. 1954 . aaae yoy acipayp, aapae aay i oapcy cepai (1969), y 1971 . apiae ae paecapa. pa a a ayea aae acay papa cya iapayp, a 1982 . caoia i-pia eapyca aaii ay. epa yia ayei aac 1955 ., a ep opi aaa aaa co aa ce a a a ae. iae a opia, paa a ayei ao epy a paea aea, i paia e a cepi paaix opia, aix, o-paecii (1958) i aoi aa (1966), a acaa oce aaa i aoec, cpo ix pa aa ea (1958), o cap pyc (1958), epao poc (1958), pee yoaa ic (1962), ya (1964) i ap a ciai (1971). oi x aoec i aaa aica ayi i oce aae aax e, o acaei ac a. op ayei aica ip i paa ci, ae paici i payi aociai a ax ay ao, i paci aax i ecaox yoax aco ea ayai. eaopx aaax aea acaa apia acaeaa caeaa paaca (io aaa aa ao), e aaoa iaaia aacepa a e a x, xo yae eaa ac paex apx oa. ai a, eaxoa aa, o ayea p c ca aea cxiaci a aapiy, yc y eaopa cyei aaae aaac pap ai paicac i paaaa. ao a acee aa pa i iceia cai, ecyea, p a i cao paa pa aax e, acex ao: aca p apoe (1962), eep y cocax (1967) i opa pi (1973). po ix, eyoa, ao ya ep paa, i acpye ay cay cixaaiy i i ci ipa paia, i ae o aaai. ao epo i paxa aee oii oai i pcai caoa aapa. ai ao aecaa ca aai, o ayac a apoa aya. ayea aaa ae yiay aacepy ao acy, i a ae aai payeac i cyepaae eaxoaci pa caa pai, o cya ix ao a y aaa a pae, ax aa ca caee. aa e ce e paae aaa oi opa apa. icae iea cycp a op y ea, i yaea eaoa ea ie ea o, o pye, o o oa ape, aaae ay pa oe, o caa a ea iaoi, e eaxoaci aapy eacpa aa cae aoci a apcaa a. i, iaa oy, yae, o aoi (ee) ae op, o yci pao, o acpoae caey iaoi, y o oac apa, e a aca cpa pap ai paaaa i paicac: a oi oce ia eacipaaa caoa, e pacai xo xae, c-a ya acaaac e aaa a apoa. e aeax icai pa cecay cecaacaapy cay ace, pa ocexi aaca, i [i], aa a ac o eapaa, e ep y o, i po, e apa ao, a pa a ya. o e icaaa cpi ai ii i a, i p o payei ei pay i oi aiy ay. ai ia aa eaiai, i a ei ac payic. oe i poe paex ecaoa pexai ca ia, pacaai pa ai e yci a, icaac aeax. a a, aaa. p, a aaoai apa, y ye aaai i ii aepea, i i cyaoic. c caa a ca eca. eac epaa paaa acaa e axaaac acya ac poii, eep y cocax, e eia ca ai, ae aaa a o poi oe pocy apoaa cypaiy aya ei cia. ayea c acpye opy a i payee cixaoii aea, ae poi aa ee a, o aaai epay paay poii coeacaiy paac. c o e ae ai paye i aaa, y ep i a, ai i aaaa cpaac o acpo aa ao aoaci aaa cypaie ea, aec ao a ce ixa i aa, ay a ie. ai cpi, o ao acy, aaai epay paay ayei aapac, oaa cpaay aoi paaa poii, xo i pa aa, o op c pea acyiae a epai. ayea i ae paae ica pa ay, aa, apaa ao, paea, xo i oc yoa, a paa caea apa a ip, ay ay a e ae caeaa apoa (apoa). po aoec i aaa aa epy pa aa apiy cox opaa yy ea acaia aiai aaax (1974), o ocei (1976) i pae a ie (1978). 70- i 80- . epoi ayei caoa c o paaii, cpay paye aco ca, aai, iaai i aai pae cyacaci, ae apa iy acaa aapici xa. a o oi paa, ya ex a (1979) i eyei (1984), i eca yi i aaa (1982) cea pa oe, o ayea paae aa apcoa oce yacaa i o a ac iaiye homo sovieticus o aia, yac, oac i aaac a yy co aaea. oi op ayei, i aae aoe coae aiae caoia, epaaaic a xoecaci i i o. oay py aea acaa aoeci pa ay e i pa ayox aceaa, y iy aapaii, pcea y yay (1967), yy oacy (1968) i iceia-apaa (1967). e a oe, o a pa ayea yaapoa paa pi i . oaca (1972), o ayo pa i aii aapai, i oac ox acaix opa. eaia eacp ac oce iceia a y ciy i y apac e o opa, acaia paay aca p apoe, i paii a, ae ecye ca y eapycy iapaypy, pceay ia a ae.